Chapter 12 Holt Ancient World History

Chapter 12 1.A) Justinian I was an emperor of the Byzantine Empire.

He reformed the roman laws by rearranging them and putting them in order.The revised law code called Justinian’s Code.

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B) Theodora influenced the nika revolt because she stood strong and convinced her king to do the same. C) Justinian could have made his achievements by being more conscious of how much land his government could support when he was taking over the land to the west. 2. A) A mosaic is a piece of art comprised of small pieces of colored tile or glass. Mosaics were one of the most common types of Byzantine art.

B) I believe that the iconoclasts responded the way they did to the human images because it seemed to them like the images were to close to the non-Christian worship of an idols. C) The split between the Orthodox and the Roman Catholic Church occurred because of their many differences the most important of which was who in the church had the most power. 3. A) Under the Macedonian dynasty the Byzantine Empire enjoyed a 200 year golden age. B) The split between the aristocracies of city and countryside was a problem because it caused them to fight within their empire which weekend them to outside attack.C) The statement, “The Byzantines themselves, not the Turks, bear the greatest responsibility for the end of their empire,” is completely true. Section 2 1.

A) The Slavs asked for help from the Rus to bring “Order” to their way of living and act as a kind of king. B) The accomplishments of Yaroslav the Wise are: fact that he became ruler of Kiev Rus, He hired scribes to translate religious books from Greek to Slavic, and under his rule the Russian law was codified, and he helped regain territory that had been lost.C) The physical geography may have affect the relationship between the Byzantine Empire and the Kievan Rus because since the where so close there seems as if there might be some territorial issues. 2. A) Cyril And Methodius converted Slavs to Christianity. B) Vladimir I impacted Russian Christianity by converting then marrying the sister of the Byzantine Emperor. He also built libraries, schools, and churches.

Then he made Christianity the state religion. C) I think Christianity spread more in he city then the country side because cities have more people which means it was probably more promoted. 3. A) Alexander Nevsky was known as a Russian hero. Not only did he defeat the Swedes and the Teutonic Knights, he also was the Mongols vessel. B) I think Invasions from the outside caused more damage to the Kievan State then Internal problems because they always seemed to be under attack. First, being attacked from the east, Then the north and then being invaded again by the Teutonic Knights.

Section 3 . A) Alfred the Great was the kind of Wessex. He helped defeat the Danish Invaders and joined forces with Anglo-Saxon England. He also compiled a code of laws and promoted learning. B) The Franks converted to Christianity because their leader, Clovis, swore that if they won the battle be could become a Christian. The Franks won, and all his troops followed in Clovis’s footsteps. C) I think Western Europe broke apart probably because they didn’t have a unifying leader.

Everyone in that age wanted power to themselves. . A) Patrick spread Christianity throughout Ireland without giving a care how he was treated. By the time he died he achieved making almost all of Ireland Christian. B) Gregory the Great was a Roman Catholic pope. His major achievement was restoring monastic discipline, and was zealous in propagating Christianity. C) I think Christendom affect medieval Europe in a small way.

It was just another society that promoted Christianity and its customs. 3. A) Life for a Celtic Monk is quiet and reserved.They liked to be isolated from the rest of society because they felt as though it would keep them from being distracted from their faith. They like to fast and spend days at a time in solitary contemplation. B) Benedictines and Celtic monasteries were similar because they both where groups of monks who were very dedicated and focused on their religion. They were also both led by Abbots.

They are different from each other because the Benedictines were open to the public about their religion and were not as brutal then the Celtics.Celtics often did intense fasts and like to be isolated and away from social activity. C) I think that the most significant thing that the Benedictines did was run schools that help educate and create the “Finest Minds” of the Middle Ages. This led to smart people copying important ancient manuscripts to help keep the knowledge of Greece and Rome alive. Without those manuscript, we probably would be reading this chapter and a big chunk of history would be undiscovered.

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